An analysis of the effects of the flu pandemic in 1918

What is avian influenza?

An analysis of the effects of the flu pandemic in 1918

History Hypotheses about source Historian Alfred W. Crosby recorded that the flu originated in the U. In latemilitary pathologists reported the onset of a new disease with high mortality that they later recognized as the flu. It also was home to a live piggery, and poultry were regularly brought in from surrounding villages.

Oxford and his team postulated that a significant precursor virus, harbored in birds, mutated so it could migrate to pigs that were kept near the front.

Some hypothesized the flu originated in East Asia. Political scientist Andrew Price-Smith published data from the Austrian archives suggesting the influenza had earlier origins, beginning in Austria in early In the report, Humphries found archival evidence that a respiratory illness that struck northern China in November was identified a year later by Chinese health officials as identical to the "Spanish" flu.

It found evidence that the virus had been circulating in the European armies for months and possibly years before the pandemic.

Modern transportation systems made it easier for soldiers, sailors, and civilian travelers to spread the disease. On 4 Marchcompany cook Albert Gitchell reported sick at Fort Rileyan American military facility that at the time was training American troops during World War I, making him the first recorded victim of the flu.

The Spanish flu also spread through Ireland, carried there by returning Irish soldiers. The Allies of World War I came to call it the Spanish flu, primarily because the pandemic received greater press attention after it moved from France to Spain in November Spain was not involved in the war and had not imposed wartime censorship.

In the Four Corners area alone, 3, deaths were registered among Native Americans. One observer wrote, "One of the most striking of the complications was hemorrhage from mucous membranes, especially from the nose, stomach, and intestine.

Bleeding from the ears and petechial hemorrhages in the skin also occurred". Inolder adults may have had partial protection caused by exposure to the — flu pandemicknown as the Russian flu. Slower-progressing cases featured secondary bacterial pneumonias, and there may have been neural involvement that led to mental disorders in some cases.

Some deaths resulted from malnourishment. They tried to study the factors that underlie variability in temporal patterns, and the patterns of mortality and morbidity. Their analysis suggests that temporal variations in transmission rate provide the best explanation and the variation in transmission required to generate these three waves is within biologically plausible values.

Their modelling results showed that all three factors are important but human behavioral responses showed the largest effects. Army Camp Hospital no. The first wave had resembled typical flu epidemics; those most at risk were the sick and elderly, while younger, healthier people recovered easily.

But in August, when the second wave began in France, Sierra Leone and the United States, [73] the virus had mutated to a much deadlier form. As the American Experience Influenza episode says, October was the deadliest month of the whole pandemic.

Those who get very ill stay home, and those mildly ill continue with their lives, preferentially spreading the mild strain. In the trenches, natural selection was reversed. Soldiers with a mild strain stayed where they were, while the severely ill were sent on crowded trains to crowded field hospitals, spreading the deadlier virus.

The second wave began and the flu quickly spread around the world again. Consequently, during modern pandemics health officials pay attention when the virus reaches places with social upheaval looking for deadlier strains of the virus.

This was most dramatically illustrated in Copenhagenwhich escaped with a combined mortality rate of just 0.

Some communities closed all stores or required customers to leave orders outside. There were reports that health-care workers could not tend the sick nor the gravediggers bury the dead because they too were ill. Mass graves were dug by steam shovel and bodies buried without coffins in many places.

The pandemic reached them from New Zealand, which was too slow to implement measures to prevent ships carrying the flu from leaving its ports.

An analysis of the effects of the flu pandemic in 1918

Of these deaths, influenza was specifically listed as the cause of death in cases, representing 4. The Japanese government severely restricted sea travel to and from the home islands when the pandemic struck. In the Pacific, American Samoa [83] and the French colony of New Caledonia [84] also succeeded in preventing even a single death from influenza through effective quarantines.

In Australia, nearly 12, perished. She based this on the reported symptoms in those dying from the flu, as reported in the post mortem reports still available, and also the timing of the big "death spike" in October which happened right after the Surgeon General of the United States Armyand the Journal of the American Medical Association both recommended very large doses of 8 to 31 grams of aspirin per day.

She suggests that the wave of aspirin poisonings was due to a " perfect storm " of events:Influenza Updates: Flu activity in the U.S. is low now, but expected to pick up in the coming weeks. CDC on Flu Vaccine: CDC’s vaccine recommendations for the flu season are now available.; CDC recommends yearly flu vaccination for people 6 months and older.

Influenza Updates: was a high severity, H3N2-predominant season.; Flu activity in the U.S. is low now, but expected to pick up in the Fall. CDC on Flu Vaccine: CDC’s vaccine recommendations for the flu season are now available.; CDC recommends yearly flu vaccination for people 6 months and older.

This post is co-published with NPR’s health blog out the story for updated information about this year’s flu shot from a CDC medical officer.. Once again, flu season is upon us — and so are all the misconceptions, excuses and worries that have kept so many people away from getting their flu .

world war i. updated january jump to: timelines / primary documents, letters, & diaries. statistics & casualties / diplomacy and causes of the war.

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participating countries / battle strategy & info. weapons & the troops / trench warfare / gas warfare. military medicine / war in the air & on the sea. maps, images, art / war propaganda. spies - espionage - codes! The influenza pandemic (January – December ; colloquially known as: Spanish flu) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus.

It infected million people around the world, including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to million (three to five percent of the. Should I take vitamin D to reduce the risk of colds and flu (URI)? Yes, you should because so many studies show that vitamin D helps reduce the risk of colds and flu.

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